Biallelic DAW1 variants cause a motile ciliopathy characterized by laterality defects and subtle ciliary beating abnormalities
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Leslie, J. S.
Bearce, E. A.
Genetics in medicine
Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE: The clinical spectrum of motile ciliopathies includes laterality defects, hydrocephalus, and infertility as well as primary ciliary dyskinesia when impaired mucociliary clearance results in otosinopulmonary disease. Importantly, approximately 30% of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia lack a genetic diagnosis. METHODS: Clinical, genomic, biochemical, and functional studies were performed alongside in vivo modeling of DAW1 variants. RESULTS: In this study, we identified biallelic DAW1 variants associated with laterality defects and respiratory symptoms compatible with motile cilia dysfunction. In early mouse embryos, we showed that Daw1 expression is limited to distal, motile ciliated cells of the node, consistent with a role in left-right patterning. daw1 mutant zebrafish exhibited reduced cilia motility and left-right patterning defects, including cardiac looping abnormalities. Importantly, these defects were rescued by wild-type, but not mutant daw1, gene expression. In addition, pathogenic DAW1 missense variants displayed reduced protein stability, whereas DAW1 loss-of-function was associated with distal type 2 outer dynein arm assembly defects involving axonemal respiratory cilia proteins, explaining the reduced cilia-induced fluid flow in particle tracking velocimetry experiments. CONCLUSION: Our data define biallelic DAW1 variants as a cause of human motile ciliopathy and determine that the disease mechanism involves motile cilia dysfunction, explaining the ciliary beating defects observed in affected individuals.
Genet Med. 2022 Sep 7:S1098-3600(22)00870-X. doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.07.019.
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