Ocular manifestations of tuberculosis: an update

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Gupta, B
Agrawal, R.
Swampillai, Andrew
Lim, R HF
Kee, A
Gunasekeran, D
Pavesio, C
Expert Review of Ophthalmology
Journal Article
Taylor & Francis
Archived with thanks to Expert Review of Ophthalmology.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health burden and has both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. One well-recognised and complex extra-pulmonary form is ocular TB, with its diverse extra- and intra-ocular presentations and often without signs of systemic illness. These could be caused directly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and inflammation or represent a delayed immune response. Epidemiological data on the true prevalence of ocular TB is scanty and varied in different parts of the world. This is due to lack of a uniform diagnostic criteria as well as difficulties in confirming the diagnosis with traditional laboratory methods. A variety of investigations including imaging, blood tests and biopsies can be used to predict and diagnose ocular involvement in tuberculosis. Our expert review seeks to identify key clinical and laboratorial features and provide a literature update that may facilitate diagnosis of intra-ocular tuberculosis.
Ocular manifestations of tuberculosis: an update 2016, 11(2): 145-154 Expert Review of Ophthalmology