Postradioiodine Graves' management: The PRAGMA study

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Perros, P.
Basu, A.
Boelaert, K.
Dayan, C.
Vaidya, B.
Williams, G. R.
Lazarus, J. H.
Hickey, J.
Drake, W. M.
Crown, A.
Clinical endocrinology
Journal Article
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid status in the months following radioiodine (RI) treatment for Graves' disease can be unstable. Our objective was to quantify frequency of abnormal thyroid function post-RI and compare effectiveness of common management strategies. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicentre and observational study. PATIENTS: Adult patients with Graves' disease treated with RI with 12 months' follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Euthyroidism was defined as both serum thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) and free thyroxine (FT4) within their reference ranges or, when only one was available, it was within its reference range; hypothyroidism as TSH ≥ 10 mU/L, or subnormal FT4 regardless of TSH; hyperthyroidism as TSH below and FT4 above their reference ranges; dysthyroidism as the sum of hypo- and hyperthyroidism; subclinical hypothyroidism as normal FT4 and TSH between the upper limit of normal and <10 mU/L; and subclinical hyperthyroidism as low TSH and normal FT4. RESULTS: Of 812 patients studied post-RI, hypothyroidism occurred in 80.7% and hyperthyroidism in 48.6% of patients. Three principal post-RI management strategies were employed: (a) antithyroid drugs alone, (b) levothyroxine alone, and (c) combination of the two. Differences among these were small. Adherence to national guidelines regarding monitoring thyroid function in the first 6 months was low (21.4%-28.7%). No negative outcomes (new-onset/exacerbation of Graves' orbitopathy, weight gain, and cardiovascular events) were associated with dysthyroidism. There were significant differences in demographics, clinical practice, and thyroid status postradioiodine between centres. CONCLUSIONS: Dysthyroidism in the 12 months post-RI was common. Differences between post-RI strategies were small, suggesting these interventions alone are unlikely to address the high frequency of dysthyroidism.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2022 Mar 11. doi: 10.1111/cen.14719.
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