Barriers and facilitators to clinical behaviour change by primary care practitioners: a theory-informed systematic review of reviews using the Theoretical Domains Framework and Behaviour Change Wheel

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Mather, M.
Pettigrew, L. M.
Navaratnam, S.
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*Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , *Motivation , Primary Health Care , Behaviour Change Wheel , Behaviour change , Com-b , Family doctor , Family medicine , Family physician , General practice , General practitioner , Primary care , Quality improvement , Theoretical domains framework
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BACKGROUND: Understanding the barriers and facilitators to behaviour change by primary care practitioners (PCPs) is vital to inform the design and implementation of successful Behaviour Change Interventions (BCIs), embed evidence-based medicine into routine clinical practice, and improve quality of care and population health outcomes. METHODS: A theory-led systematic review of reviews examining barriers and facilitators to clinical behaviour change by PCPs in high-income primary care contexts using PRISMA. Embase, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, HMIC and Cochrane Library were searched. Content and framework analysis was used to map reported barriers and facilitators to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and describe emergent themes. Intervention functions and policy categories to change behaviour associated with these domains were identified using the COM-B Model and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). RESULTS: Four thousand three hundred eighty-eight reviews were identified. Nineteen were included. The average quality score was 7.5/11. Reviews infrequently used theory to structure their methods or interpret their findings. Barriers and facilitators most frequently identified as important were principally related to 'Knowledge', 'Environmental context and resources' and 'Social influences' TDF domains. These fall under the 'Capability' and 'Opportunity' domains of COM-B, and are linked with interventions related to education, training, restriction, environmental restructuring and enablement. From this, three key areas for policy change include guidelines, regulation and legislation. Factors least frequently identified as important were related to 'Motivation' and other psychological aspects of 'Capability' of COM-B. Based on this, BCW intervention functions of persuasion, incentivisation, coercion and modelling may be perceived as less relevant by PCPs to change behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: PCPs commonly perceive barriers and facilitators to behaviour change related to the 'Capability' and 'Opportunity' domains of COM-B. PCPs may lack insight into the role that 'Motivation' and aspects of psychological 'Capability' have in behaviour change and/or that research methods have been inadequate to capture their function. Future research should apply theory-based frameworks and appropriate design methods to explore these factors. With no 'one size fits all' intervention, these findings provide general, transferable insights into how to approach changing clinical behaviour by PCPs, based on their own views on the barriers and facilitators to behaviour change. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: A protocol was submitted to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine via the Ethics and CARE form submission on 16.4.2020, ref number 21478 (available on request). The project was not registered on PROSPERO.
Syst Rev. 2022 Aug 30;11(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s13643-022-02030-2.
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Systematic reviews
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