Fundamentals of Bowel Cancer for Biomedical Engineers

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Tian, J.
Afebu, K. O.
Bickerdike, A.
Liu, Y.
Prasad, S.
Nelson, B. J.
Annals of biomedical engineering
Journal Article Review
© 2023. The Author(s).
Bowel cancer is a multifactorial disease arising from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Detection of bowel cancer and its precursor lesions is predominantly performed by either visual inspection of the colonic mucosa during endoscopy or cross-sectional imaging. Most cases are diagnosed when the cancer is already at an advanced stage. These modalities are less reliable for detecting lesions at the earliest stages, when they are typically small or flat. Removal of lesions at the earliest possible stage reduces the risk of cancer death, which is largely due to a reduced risk of subsequent metastasis. In this review, we summarised the origin of bowel cancer and the mechanism of its metastasis. In particular, we reviewed a broad spectrum of literatures covering the biomechanics of bowel cancer and its measurement techniques that are pertinent to the successful development of a bowel cancer diagnostic device. We also reviewed existing bowel cancer diagnostic techniques that are available for clinical use. Finally, we outlined current clinical needs and highlighted the potential roles of medical robotics on early bowel cancer diagnosis.
Ann Biomed Eng. 2023 Apr;51(4):679-701. doi: 10.1007/s10439-023-03155-8. Epub 2023 Feb 14.
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