Robot-assisted laparoscopic repair of cesarean scar defect: a systematic review of clinical evidence

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Gkegkes, I. D.
Psomiadou, V.
Minis, E.
Iavazzo, C.
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Cesarean delivery , Cesarean scar defect , Cesarean section , Robotic , Robotic assisted laparoscopy , Robotic surgery
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We aim to assess the available evidence concerning the robot-assisted repair of cesarean scar defect. A systematic PubMed and Scopus search was conducted. All databases were assessed up to May 23, 2022. Studies reporting data on robot-assisted repair of cesarean scar defect were included in this review. Data of 34 patients are presented. The mean age of the patients was 34.8 years old. The mean number of times a woman has been pregnant (gravidity) was 3.1, while the mean number of parity among the included women was 1.9. The mean number of previous cesarean sections among the included women is 1.8. The commonest symptoms at presentation of cesarean scar defect were vaginal bleeding, dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain, secondary infertility amenorrhea and ectopic cesarean scar pregnancy. The gestational age at time of surgery ranged between 6 and 14 weeks. The mean operative time was 165.2 min, while the reported blood loss during the operation ranged between 0 and 400 ml. Bladder perforation was the only intraoperative complication reported (1 out of 34, 2.9%). No conversion to open was reported. The mean interval between the last cesarean section and the development of cesarean scar defect was 22.8 months. Subsequent pregnancy after robotic assisted repair was reported in 16 out of 34 patients (47.1%). Robot-assisted treatment for cesarean scar defect has acceptable effectiveness and risks. Based on available data, uterus-sparing therapy should be considered in patients with cesarean scar pregnancies or symptomatic cesarean scar defect who wish to preserve their fertility. Finally, the role of a combined robotic and hysteroscopic correction of cesarean scar defect for reducing the blood loss and reducing the following obstetrical complications warrants future research.
J Robot Surg. 2022 Nov 27. doi: 10.1007/s11701-022-01502-w.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.
Journal of robotic surgery
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