Treatment of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: promise, disappointment, and hope
Bellenger, N. G.
Ludman, A. J.
Shore, A. C.
Strain, W. D.
JournalReviews in cardiovascular medicine
Rights© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
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Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains the gold standard in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), limiting infarct size, preserving left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and improving clinical outcomes. Despite this, a significant proportion of STEMI patients develop post-infarct heart failure. We review the current understanding and up-to-date evidence base for therapeutic intervention of ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), a combination of myocardial ischaemia secondary to acute coronary occlusion and reperfusion injury leading to further myocardial injury and cell death. Multiple treatment modalities have been shown to be cardioprotective and reduce IRI in experimental animal models. Recent phase II/III randomised controlled trials (RCT) have assessed multiple cardioprotective strategies ranging from ischaemic conditioning, therapeutic hypothermia and hyperoxaemia to pharmacological therapies. While several therapies have been shown to reduce infarct size in animal models or proof-of-concept studies, many larger scale trial results have proven inconsistent and disappointing. Hard clinical outcomes remain elusive. We discuss potential reasons for the difficulties in translation to clinical practice.
CitationRev Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Jan 17;23(1):23. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm2301023.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
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