Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status Scores Associate with Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology at Death
Robinson, A. C.
Davidson, Y. S.
Horan, M. A.
Mann, D. M. A.
JournalJournal of Alzheimar's Disease
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BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) provides an opportunity for early intervention. Cognitive testing has proven to be a reliable way to identify individuals who may be at risk of AD. The Telephone Assessment for Cognitive Screening (TICS) is proficient in screening for cognitive impairment. However, its ability to identify those at risk of developing AD pathology is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate associations between TICS scores, collected over a period of 13 years, and the cognitive status of participants at death. We also examine relationships between TICS scores and neuropathological indices of AD (CERAD score, Thal phase, and Braak stage). METHODS: Between 2004 and 2017, participants from The University of Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition in Normal Healthy Old Age underwent cognitive assessment using TICS. Scores from four time points were available for analysis. Cognitive impairment and AD pathology at death was evaluated in 101 participants. RESULTS: TICS scores at time points 2, 3, and 4 were significantly lower in those cognitively impaired at death compared to those considered cognitively normal. There were significant negative correlations between TICS scores and CERAD score and Braak stage at time points 2 and 4. No correlations between Thal phase and TICS were found. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that TICS could be used not only to screen for cognitive impairment, but also to identify individuals at risk of developing AD pathology, many years before any overt symptoms occur. Once identified, 'at risk' individuals could be targeted for early interventions which could attenuate the progression of the disease.