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dc.contributor.authorHubbard, Thomas J. E.
dc.contributor.authorDudgeon, Alexander P.
dc.contributor.authorFerguson, Douglas J.
dc.contributor.authorShore, Angela C.
dc.contributor.authorStone, Nicholas
dc.identifier.citationHubbard, T. J. E., Dudgeon, A. P., et al. (2021) ‘Utilization of Raman spectroscopy to identify breast cancer from the water content in surgical samples containing blue dye’, Translational Biophotonics, 3(2), p. e202000023. doi: 10.1002/tbio.202000023.
dc.description.abstractBreast conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer aims for optimal oncological results with minimal tissue excision. Positive margins due to insufficient resection results in significant numbers of patients requiring re-excision, which could be resolved with intra-operative margin analysis (IMA). High wavenumber (HWN) Raman Spectroscopy (RS) examines the difference in protein/lipid environment and water content in tissues. Fluorescence from haemoglobin and blue dye surgical pigments (commonly present in excised breast tissue) can confound HWN RS. We present a Raman system with 785 nm excitation laser and indium gallium arsenide camera capable of quantifying changes in water content in different environments (protein-rich and lipid-rich) by measuring the water/total area ratio (W/TAR) of the HWN spectrum. We demonstrate that haemoglobin and blue dye do not adversely affect water content analysis by the W/TAR calculation. Measurement of paired tumour/non-tumour human breast tissue specimens showed the biochemical differences between tissues, and spectral analysis with W/TAR demonstrated large differences in water content and that our Raman system can accurately differentiate between tumour and non-tumour tissue, even in the presence of surgical pigments. This provides proof of principle that this Raman system is suitable for further investigation with a view to providing IMA in the clinical environment.
dc.rightsCopyright © 1999-2021 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
dc.subjectbreast cancer
dc.subjectbreast neoplasms
dc.subjectRaman spectroscopy
dc.subjectspectrum analysis
dc.subjectsurgical oncology
dc.titleUtilization of Raman spectroscopy to identify breast cancer from the water content in surgical samples containing blue dye
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.journalTranslational Biophotonics
dc.description.noteThe article is available via Open Access. Click on the 'Additional link' above to access the full-text.
dc.description.admin-notePublished version, accepted version (12 month embargo), submitted version

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Copyright © 1999-2021 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 1999-2021 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.