100 years of insulin: celebrating the past, present and future of diabetes therapy
Sims, E. K.
Carr, A. L. J.
Oram, R. A.
DiMeglio, L. A.
Rights© 2021. This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.
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The year 2021 marks the centennial of Banting and Best's landmark description of the discovery of insulin. This discovery and insulin's rapid clinical deployment effectively transformed type 1 diabetes from a fatal diagnosis into a medically manageable chronic condition. In this Review, we describe key accomplishments leading to and building on this momentous occasion in medical history, including advancements in our understanding of the role of insulin in diabetes pathophysiology, the molecular characterization of insulin and the clinical use of insulin. Achievements are also viewed through the lens of patients impacted by insulin therapy and the evolution of insulin pharmacokinetics and delivery over the past 100 years. Finally, we reflect on the future of insulin therapy and diabetes treatment, as well as challenges to be addressed moving forward, so that the full potential of this transformative discovery may be realized.