Evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in women with GCK-MODY
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Aims: To determine the fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnant women with Glucokinase-Maturity onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Methods: We studied the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in 99 pregnancies of 34 women with GCK-MODY. The mutation status of the offspring was known in 29 and presumed in 33. Clinical outcomes were determined and compared between affected (n = 39) and unaffected (n = 23) offspring. Results: 59% of pregnancies were treated with diet alone and 41% received insulin. Birthweight, percentage of large for gestational age (LGA) and caesarean section (CS) in GCK-unaffected offspring was significantly higher than in GCK-affected offspring (4.0 ± 0.7 vs. 3.4 ± 0.4 kg, p = 0.001), 15 (65%) vs. 5(13%) (p = 0.00006) and 17 (74%) vs. 11 (28%) (p = 0.001), respectively. We observed an earlier gestational age at delivery on insulin in unaffected offspring (38.3 ± 1.0 vs. 39.5 ± 1.5 weeks, p = 0.03) with no significant change in LGA (9 (82%) vs. 6 (50%); p = 0.12), and a higher rate of CS (8 [73%] vs. 3 [11%]; p < 0.001), and no change in small for gestational age (0 [0%] vs. 4 [14%]; p = 0.30) in affected offspring. Conclusion: Insulin therapy in unaffected offspring did not reduce LGA and was associated with earlier gestational age at delivery. Insulin treatment in GCK-affected offspring was associated with an increased incidence of CS, but did not adversely affect fetal outcome. Fetal genotype determines birthweight rather than treatment. Pre-pregnancy diagnosis of GCK-MODY, use of continuous glucose monitoring and non-invasive fetal genotyping may enable further investigation of targeted therapy in this condition.