Type 1 Diabetes: Interferons and the Aftermath of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Enteroviral Infection
Richardson, S. J.
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institue
Rights© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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Enteroviruses (EVs) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and accumulating evidence has associated virus-induced autoimmunity with the loss of pancreatic beta cells in T1D. Inflammatory cytokines including interferons (IFN) form a primary line of defence against viral infections, and their chronic elevation is a hallmark feature of many autoimmune diseases. IFNs play a key role in activating and regulating innate and adaptive immune responses, and to do so they modulate the expression of networks of genes and transcription factors known generically as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). ISGs in turn modulate critical cellular processes ranging from cellular metabolism and growth regulation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. More recent studies have revealed that IFNs also modulate gene expression at an epigenetic as well as post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. As such, IFNs form a key link connecting the various genetic, environmental and immunological factors involved in the initiation and progression of T1D. Therefore, gaining an improved understanding of the mechanisms by which IFNs modulate beta cell function and survival is crucial in explaining the pathogenesis of virally-induced T1D. This should provide the means to prevent, decelerate or even reverse beta cell impairment.
CitationAkhbari P, Richardson SJ, Morgan NG. Type 1 Diabetes: Interferons and the Aftermath of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Enteroviral Infection. Microorganisms. 2020 Sep 15;8(9):1419.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)