Improvement in glycaemic parameters using SGLT-2 inhibitor and GLP-1 agonist in combination in an adolescent with diabetes mellitus and Prader-Willi syndrome: a case report
JournalJournal of Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
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Objectives Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is characterised by hyperphagia often leading to obesity; a known risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 (T2) diabetes. We present a prepubertal girl with PWS who developed diabetes. Case presentation Our case was diagnosed with PWS in infancy following investigation for profound central hypotonia and feeding difficulties. She commenced growth hormone (GH) aged 8 years for short stature and treatment improved linear growth. At age 12 years, she presented with polydipsia, polyuria and vulvovaginitis. She was overweight (BMI SDS +1.43). Diabetes was diagnosed (Blood glucose = 24.2 mmol/L, HbA1c = 121 mmol/mol or 13.2%). She was not acidotic and had negative blood ketones. Autoantibodies typical of type 1 diabetes were negative. She was initially treated with basal bolus insulin regime. GH was discontinued 3 months later due to concerns regarding GH-induced insulin resistance. Off GH, insulin requirements reduced to zero, allowing Metformin monotherapy. However off GH, she reported significant lethargy with static growth and increased weight. Combinations of Metformin with differing insulin regimes did not improve glucose levels. Liraglutide (GLP-1 agonist) and Metformin did not improve glucose levels nor her weight. Liraglutide and Empaglifozin (SGLT-2 inhibitor) therapy used in combination were well tolerated and demonstrated rapid normalisation of blood glucose and improvement in her HbA1c to within target (48 mmol/mol) which was sustained after 6 months of treatment. Conclusions Newer treatments for type 2 diabetes (e. g. GLP-1 agonists or SGLT-2 inhibitors) offer potential treatment options for those with diabetes and PWS when conventional treatments are ineffective.