Unravelling the genetic causes of mosaic islet morphology in congenital hyperinsulinism
Houghton, Jane A. L.
JournalJournal of Pathology. Clinical Research
RightsThis is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
MetadataShow full item record
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) causes dysregulated insulin secretion which can lead to life-threatening hypoglycaemia if not effectively managed. CHI can be sub-classified into three distinct groups: diffuse, focal and mosaic pancreatic disease. Whilst the underlying causes of diffuse and focal disease have been widely characterised, the genetic basis of mosaic pancreatic disease is not known. To gain new insights into the underlying disease processes of mosaic-CHI we studied the islet tissue histopathology derived from limited surgical resection from the tail of the pancreas in a patient with CHI. The underlying genetic aetiology was investigated using a combination of high depth next-generation sequencing, microsatellite analysis and p57kip2 immunostaining. Histopathology of the pancreatic tissue confirmed the presence of a defined area associated with marked islet hypertrophy and a cytoarchitecture distinct from focal CHI but compatible with mosaic CHI localised to a discrete region within the pancreas. Analysis of DNA extracted from the lesion identified a de novo mosaic ABCC8 mutation and mosaic paternal uniparental disomy which were not present in leukocyte DNA or the surrounding unaffected pancreatic tissue. This study provides the first description of two independent disease-causing somatic genetic events occurring within the pancreas of an individual with localised mosaic CHI. Our findings increase knowledge of the genetic causes of islet disease and provide further insights into the underlying developmental changes associated with β-cell expansion in CHI.