Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score discriminates between monogenic and Type 1 diabetes in children diagnosed at the age of <5 years in the Iranian population
McDonald, Timothy J.
Hattersley, Andrew T.
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AIM To examine the extent to which discriminatory testing using antibodies and Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score, validated in European populations, is applicable in a non-European population. METHODS: We recruited 127 unrelated children with diabetes diagnosed between 9 months and 5 years from two centres in Iran. All children underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of 35 monogenic diabetes genes. We measured three islet autoantibodies (islet antigen 2, glutamic acid decarboxylase and zinc transporter 8) and generated a Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score in all children. RESULTS: We identified six children with monogenic diabetes, including four novel mutations: homozygous mutations in WFS1 (n=3), SLC19A2 and SLC29A3, and a heterozygous mutation in GCK. All clinical features were similar in children with monogenic diabetes (n=6) and in the rest of the cohort (n=121). The Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score discriminated children with monogenic from Type 1 diabetes [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97)]. All children with monogenic diabetes were autoantibody-negative. In children with no mutation, 59 were positive to glutamic acid decarboxylase, 39 to islet antigen 2 and 31 to zinc transporter 8. Measuring zinc transporter 8 increased the number of autoantibody-positive individuals by eight. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first evidence that Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score can be used to distinguish monogenic from Type 1 diabetes in an Iranian population with a large number of consanguineous unions. This test can be used to identify children with a higher probability of having monogenic diabetes who could then undergo genetic testing. Identification of these individuals would reduce the cost of treatment and improve the management of their clinical course.