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dc.contributor.authorShields, Beverley Men
dc.contributor.authorPeters, J. L.en
dc.contributor.authorCooper, C.en
dc.contributor.authorLowe, J.en
dc.contributor.authorKnight, Bridget A.en
dc.contributor.authorPowell, Royen
dc.contributor.authorJones, Angusen
dc.contributor.authorHyde, C. J.en
dc.contributor.authorHattersley, Andrew T.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-19T12:37:55Zen
dc.date.available2016-01-19T12:37:55Zen
dc.date.issued2015-11-02en
dc.identifier.citationBMJ Open. 2015 Nov 2;5(11):e009088.en
dc.identifier.issn2044-6055en
dc.identifier.pmid26525723en
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009088en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11287/593954en
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: Clinicians predominantly use clinical features to differentiate type 1 from type 2 diabetes yet there are no evidence-based clinical criteria to aid classification of patients. Misclassification of diabetes is widespread (7-15% of cases), resulting in patients receiving inappropriate treatment. We sought to identify which clinical criteria could be used to discriminate type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review of all diagnostic accuracy studies published since 1979 using clinical criteria to predict insulin deficiency (measured by C-peptide). DATA SOURCES: 14 databases including: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process and EMBASE. The search strategy took the form of: (terms for diabetes) AND (terms for C-Peptide). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Diagnostic accuracy studies of any routinely available clinical predictors against a reference standard of insulin deficiency defined by cut-offs of C-peptide concentrations. No restrictions on race, age, language or country of origin. RESULTS: 10 917 abstracts were screened, and 231 full texts reviewed. 11 studies met inclusion criteria, but varied by age, race, year and proportion of participants who were C-peptide negative. Age at diagnosis was the most discriminatory feature in 7/9 studies where it was assessed, with optimal cut-offs (>70% mean sensitivity and specificity) across studies being <30 years or <40 years. Use of/time to insulin treatment and body mass index (BMI) were also discriminatory. When combining features, BMI added little over age at diagnosis and/or time to insulin (<1% improvement in classification). CONCLUSIONS: Despite finding only 11 studies, and considerable heterogeneity between studies, age at diagnosis and time to insulin were consistently the most discriminatory criteria. BMI, despite being widely used in clinical practice, adds little to these two criteria. The criteria identified are similar to the Royal College of General Practitioners National Health Service (RCGP/NHS) Diabetes classification guidelines, which use age at diagnosis <35 years and time to insulin <6 m. Until further studies are carried out, these guidelines represent a suitable classification scheme. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO reference CRD42012001736.en
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherBMJen
dc.relation.urlhttp://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=26525723en
dc.titleCan clinical features be used to differentiate type 1 from type 2 diabetes? A systematic review of the literatureen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.typeSystematic reviewen
dc.identifier.journalBMJ Openen
dc.description.noteThis article is available via Open Access. Please click on the 'Additional Link' above to access the full-text.en


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