The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders
Gutowski, Nicholas J.
Chilton, J. K.
JournalArchives of disease in childhood
MetadataShow full item record
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Mobius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance.