ItemPregnancy and neonatal outcomes of COVID-19: The PAN-COVID study(Elsevier, 2022-09-01) Mullins, E.; Perry, A.; Banerjee, J.; Townson, J.; Grozeva, D.; Milton, R.; Kirby, N.; Playle, R.; Bourne, T.; Lees, C.OBJECTIVE: To assess perinatal outcomes for pregnancies affected by suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Prospective, web-based registry. Pregnant women were invited to participate if they had suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1st January 2020 and 31st March 2021 to assess the impact of infection on maternal and perinatal outcomes including miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal growth restriction, pre-term birth and transmission to the infant. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and March 2021, the study recruited 8239 participants who had suspected or confirmed SARs-CoV-2 infection episodes in pregnancy between January 2020 and March 2021. Maternal death affected 14/8197 (0.2%) participants, 176/8187 (2.2%) of participants required ventilatory support. Pre-eclampsia affected 389/8189 (4.8%) participants, eclampsia was reported in 40/ 8024 (0.5%) of all participants. Stillbirth affected 35/8187 (0.4 %) participants. In participants delivering within 2 weeks of delivery 21/2686 (0.8 %) were affected by stillbirth compared with 8/4596 (0.2 %) delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection (95 % CI 0.3-1.0). SGA affected 744/7696 (9.3 %) of livebirths, FGR affected 360/8175 (4.4 %) of all pregnancies. Pre-term birth occurred in 922/8066 (11.5%), the majority of these were indicated pre-term births, 220/7987 (2.8%) participants experienced spontaneous pre-term births. Early neonatal deaths affected 11/8050 livebirths. Of all neonates, 80/7993 (1.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Infection was associated with indicated pre-term birth, most commonly for fetal compromise. The overall proportions of women affected by SGA and FGR were not higher than expected, however there was the proportion affected by stillbirth in participants delivering within 2 weeks of infection was significantly higher than those delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection. We suggest that clinicians' threshold for delivery should be low if there are concerns with fetal movements or fetal heart rate monitoring in the time around infection. The proportion affected by pre-eclampsia amongst participants was not higher than would be expected, although we report a higher than expected proportion affected by eclampsia. There appears to be no effect on birthweight or congenital malformations in women affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and neonatal infection is uncommon. This study reflects a population with a range of infection severity for SARS-COV-2 in pregnancy, generalisable to whole obstetric populations. ItemSurvey of the use of videolaryngoscopy in neonatal units in the UK(BMJ, 2021-10-19) Thomas, H.; Lugg, R.; James, B.; Geeroms, C.; Risbridger, A.; Bell, R.; Bartle, D. G. ItemRapid exome sequencing: revolutionises the management of acutely unwell neonates.(Springer, 2021-06-18) Williamson, Sarah L.; Rasanayagam, Christina N.; Glover, Kate J.; Baptista, Julia; Naik, Swati; Satodia, Prakash; Gowda, HarshaDiagnosing acutely unwell infants with a potential genetic diagnosis can be challenging for healthcare professionals. Evidence suggests that up to 13% of critically unwell infants on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have an underlying molecular diagnosis and when identified directly affects treatment decisions in 83%. On 1st October 2019, the National Health Service England (NHSE) launched a nationally commissioned service so that rapid whole-exome sequencing can be offered to critically unwell babies and children with a likely monogenic disorder who are admitted to NICU and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We present 7 cases from two neonatal units in the West Midlands (UK), where rapid exome sequencing has revealed a genetic diagnosis. Early genetic diagnosis in this cohort has influenced management in all (100%) cases, and in 57% (4 in 7 cases), it has helped in the decision to reorientate care. In some cases, early diagnosis has reduced the need for invasive and unnecessary investigations and avoided the need for post-mortem investigations. The genetic diagnosis has helped in counselling the families regarding the recurrence risk for future pregnancies. In some cases, this has provided parents with the reassurance of a low recurrence. In others, it has resulted in the offer of prenatal diagnosis or assisted conception technologies. What is Known: • Rapid whole-exome sequencing was commissioned in the UK in October 2019. • It is available for critically unwell babies with a likely monogenic aetiology. What is New: • It helps management planning for rare genetic disorders and future pregnancies counselling. • It can reduce the need for invasive investigations and overall intensive care costs. ItemLong-term Follow-up of Glycemic and Neurological Outcomes in an International Series of Patients With Sulfonylurea-Treated ABCC8 Permanent Neonatal Diabetes(HighWire, 2021-01) Bowman, Pamela; Shepherd, Maggie; Babiker, Tarig; Thomas, N. J.; De Franco, Elisa; Ellard, Sian; Flanagan, Sarah; Hattersley, Andrew T.Objective: ABCC8 mutations cause neonatal diabetes mellitus that can be transient (TNDM) or, less commonly, permanent (PNDM); ∼90% of individuals can be treated with oral sulfonylureas instead of insulin. Previous studies suggested that people with ABCC8-PNDM require lower sulfonylurea doses and have milder neurological features than those with KCNJ11-PNDM. However, these studies were short-term and included combinations of ABCC8-PNDM and ABCC8-TNDM. We aimed to assess the long-term glycemic and neurological outcomes in sulfonylurea-treated ABCC8-PNDM. Research design and methods: We studied all 24 individuals with ABCC8-PNDM diagnosed in the U.K., Italy, France, and U.S. known to transfer from insulin to sulfonylureas before May 2010. Data on glycemic control, sulfonylurea dose, adverse effects including hypoglycemia, and neurological features were analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Long-term data were obtained for 21 of 24 individuals (median follow-up 10.0 [range 4.1-13.2] years). Eighteen of 21 remained on sulfonylureas without insulin at the most recent follow-up. Glycemic control improved on sulfonylureas (presulfonylurea vs. 1-year posttransfer HbA1c 7.2% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0004) and remained excellent long-term (1-year vs. 10-year HbA1c 5.7% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.04), n = 16. Relatively high doses were used (1-year vs. 10-year dose 0.37 vs. 0.25 mg/kg/day glyburide, P = 0.50) without any severe hypoglycemia. Neurological features were reported in 13 of 21 individuals; these improved following sulfonylurea transfer in 7 of 13. The most common features were learning difficulties (52%), developmental delay (48%), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (38%). Conclusions: Sulfonylurea treatment of ABCC8-PNDM results in excellent long-term glycemic control. Overt neurological features frequently occur and may improve with sulfonylureas, supporting early, rapid genetic testing to guide appropriate treatment and neurodevelopmental assessment. ItemParental experiences of a diagnosis of neonatal diabetes and perceptions of newborn screening for glucose: a qualitative study(HighWire, 2020-11-04) Shepherd, Maggie; Knight, Bridget A.; Laskey, Katherine; McDonald, Timothy J.Neonatal diabetes presents <6 months of life but delays in recognition result in presentation with life-threatening hyperglycaemia/diabetic ketoacidosis. Early identification and rapid genetic diagnosis is crucial and ensures correct treatment/management. Adding 'glucose' to newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) could aid prompt detection but requires evidence of parental acceptance. Objectives: Increase understanding of parental experience of presentation/recognition of neonatal diabetes and perceptions of glucose testing within NBS. Setting: UK families confirmed with a genetic diagnosis of neonatal diabetes, November 2014-2018, were invited to participate. Participants: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 parents of 14 children. 8 had transient neonatal diabetes: KCNJ11 (n=5), ABCC8 (n=1), 6q24 (n=2), 6 had permanent neonatal diabetes: KCNJ11 (n=4), INS (n=1), homozygous GCK (n=1). Primary and secondary outcome measures: Interviews audio recorded, transcribed and subjected to thematic content analysis. Results: 3 key themes emerged:Babies were extremely ill at hospital admission, with extended stays in intensive care required.Identification of diabetes was not 'standardised' and perceived a 'chance' finding.Adding glucose to NBS was universally considered extremely positive. Conclusions: Diagnosis of neonatal diabetes is frequently delayed, resulting in critically ill presentation with prolonged intensive care support, additional healthcare costs and familial distress. Potential to detect hyperglycaemia earlier was universally endorsed by parents with no negative consequences identified. Although further study including a larger number of individuals is needed to confirm our findings this study provides the first evidence of acceptability of glucose testing fulfilling Wilson-Jungner criteria for implementation within the NBS programme.