Diabetes and endocrinology

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Research outputs from the Diabetes/Endocrine service department at the RD&E.

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    Transdermal Blood Sampling for C-Peptide Is a Minimally Invasive, Reliable Alternative to Venous Sampling in Children and Adults With Type 1 Diabetes
    (American Diabetes Association, 2023-12-01) Besser, R. E. J.; Long, A. E.; Owen, K. R.; Law, R.; Birks, J. S.; Pearce, O.; Williams, C. L.; Scudder, C. L.; McDonald, T. J.; Todd, J. A.
    OBJECTIVE: C-peptide and islet autoantibodies are key type 1 diabetes biomarkers, typically requiring venous sampling, which limits their utility. We assessed transdermal capillary blood (TCB) collection as a practical alternative. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-one individuals (71 with type 1 diabetes, 20 controls; individuals with type 1 diabetes: aged median 14.8 years [interquartile range (IQR) 9.1-17.1], diabetes duration 4.0 years [1.5-7.7]; controls: 42.2 years [38.0-52.1]) underwent contemporaneous venous and TCB sampling for measurement of plasma C-peptide. Participants with type 1 diabetes also provided venous serum and plasma, and TCB plasma for measurement of autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, and zinc transporter 8. The ability of TCB plasma to detect significant endogenous insulin secretion (venous C-peptide ≥200 pmol/L) was compared along with agreement in levels, using Bland-Altman. Venous serum was compared with venous and TCB plasma for detection of autoantibodies, using established thresholds. Acceptability was assessed by age-appropriate questionnaire. RESULTS: Transdermal sampling took a mean of 2.35 min (SD 1.49). Median sample volume was 50 µL (IQR 40-50) with 3 of 91 (3.3%) failures, and 13 of 88 (14.7%) <35 µL. TCB C-peptide showed good agreement with venous plasma (mean venous ln[C-peptide] - TCB ln[C-peptide] = 0.008, 95% CI [-0.23, 0.29], with 100% [36 of 36] sensitivity/100% [50 of 50] specificity to detect venous C-peptide ≥200 pmol/L). Where venous serum in multiple autoantibody positive TCB plasma agreed in 22 of 32 (sensitivity 69%), comparative specificity was 35 of 36 (97%). TCB was preferred to venous sampling (type 1 diabetes: 63% vs. 7%; 30% undecided). CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal capillary testing for C-peptide is a sensitive, specific, and acceptable alternative to venous sampling; TCB sampling for islet autoantibodies needs further assessment.
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    Disease-modifying therapies and features linked to treatment response in type 1 diabetes prevention: a systematic review
    (Nature Research, 2023-10-05) Felton, J. L.; Griffin, K. J.; Oram, R. A.; Speake, C.; Long, S. A.; Onengut-Gumuscu, S.; Rich, S. S.; Monaco, G. S. F.; Evans-Molina, C.; DiMeglio, L. A.; Ismail, H. M.; Steck, A. K.; Dabelea, D.; Johnson, R. K.; Urazbayeva, M.; Gitelman, S.; Wentworth, J. M.; Redondo, M. J.; Sims, E. K.
    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Prevention efforts have focused on immune modulation and supporting beta cell health before or around diagnosis; however, heterogeneity in disease progression and therapy response has limited translation to clinical practice, highlighting the need for precision medicine approaches to T1D disease modification. METHODS: To understand the state of knowledge in this area, we performed a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials with ≥50 participants cataloged in PubMed or Embase from the past 25 years testing T1D disease-modifying therapies and/or identifying features linked to treatment response, analyzing bias using a Cochrane-risk-of-bias instrument. RESULTS: We identify and summarize 75 manuscripts, 15 describing 11 prevention trials for individuals with increased risk for T1D, and 60 describing treatments aimed at preventing beta cell loss at disease onset. Seventeen interventions, mostly immunotherapies, show benefit compared to placebo (only two prior to T1D onset). Fifty-seven studies employ precision analyses to assess features linked to treatment response. Age, beta cell function measures, and immune phenotypes are most frequently tested. However, analyses are typically not prespecified, with inconsistent methods of reporting, and tend to report positive findings. CONCLUSIONS: While the quality of prevention and intervention trials is overall high, the low quality of precision analyses makes it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions that inform clinical practice. To facilitate precision medicine approaches to T1D prevention, considerations for future precision studies include the incorporation of uniform outcome measures, reproducible biomarkers, and prespecified, fully powered precision analyses into future trial design. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a condition that results from the destruction of a type of cell in the pancreas that produces the hormone insulin, leading to lifelong dependence on insulin injections. T1D prevention remains a challenging goal, largely due to the immense variability in disease processes and progression. Therapies tested to date in medical research settings (clinical trials) work only in a subset of individuals, highlighting the need for more tailored prevention approaches. We reviewed clinical trials of therapies targeting the disease process in T1D. While the overall quality of trials was high, studies testing individual features affecting responses to treatments were low. This review reveals an important need to carefully plan high-quality analyses of features that affect treatment response in T1D, to ensure that tailored approaches may one day be applied to clinical practice. eng MJH Life Sciences and as a consultant for DRI Healthcare. C.E.M. reported serving on advisory boards for Provention Bio, Isla Technologies, MaiCell Technologies, Avotres, DiogenyX, and Neurodon; receiving in-kind research support from Bristol Myers Squibb and Nimbus Pharmaceuticals; and receiving investigator-initiated grants from Lilly Pharmaceuticals and Astellas Pharmaceuticals. L.A.D. reports research support to institutions from Dompe, Lilly, Mannkind, Provention, Zealand, and consulting relationships with Abata and Vertex. R.A.O. had a UK MRC Confidence in concept grant to develop a T1D GRS biochip with Randox Ltd and has ongoing research funding from Randox R & D. No other authors report any relevant conflicts of interest.
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    Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring and hypoglycaemia awareness in drivers with diabetes: Insights from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists Nationwide audit
    (Wiley, 2023-09-17) Mark-Wagstaff, C.; Deshmukh, H.; Wilmot, E. G.; Walker, N.; Barnes, D.; Parfitt, V.; Saunders, S.; Gregory, R.; Choudhary, P.; Patmore, J.; Walton, C.; Ryder, R. E. J.; Sathyapalan, T.
    AIM: Frequent hypoglycaemia results in disruption to usual hypoglycaemic autonomic responses leading to impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, which is associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia requiring third-party assistance (SH). The UK Driving and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) does not permit car driving if they have either a complete loss of hypoglycaemia awareness or more than one SH event a year. METHODS: The FreeStyle Libre (FSL) Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) Nationwide Audit consists of data collected by clinicians during routine clinical work, submitted into a secure web-based tool held within the National Health Service (NHS) N3 network. Analysis of paired baseline and follow-up data for people with type 1 diabetes who also held a driving licence was undertaken. RESULTS: The study consisted of 6304 people who had data recorded about driving status from 102 UK specialist diabetes centres, of which 4218 held a driving licence: 4178 a group 1, standard licence, 33 a group 2, large lorries and buses, seven a taxi licence; 1819 did not drive. Paired baseline and follow-up data were available for a sub-cohort of 1606/4218. At a mean follow-up of 6.9 months [95% CI (6.8, 7.1)], the Gold score had improved (2.3 ± 1.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 p < .001), and the number of people who experienced an SH episode was also significantly lower (12.1% vs. 2.7%, p < .001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring may improve impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia and reduce the number of people with type 1 diabetes with a driving licence experiencing a severe hypoglycaemic episode.
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    Standardised practices in the networked management of congenital hyperinsulinism: a UK national collaborative consensus
    (Frontiers Media, 2023-10-30) Shaikh, M. G.; Lucas-Herald, A. K.; Dastamani, A.; Salomon Estebanez, M.; Senniappan, S.; Abid, N.; Ahmad, S.; Alexander, S.; Avatapalle, B.; Awan, N.; Blair, H.; Boyle, R.; Chesover, A.; Cochrane, B.; Craigie, R.; Cunjamalay, A.; Dearman, S.; De Coppi, P.; Erlandson-Parry, K.; Flanagan, S. E.; Gilbert, C.; Gilligan, N.; Hall, C.; Houghton, J.; Kapoor, R.; McDevitt, H.; Mohamed, Z.; Morgan, K.; Nicholson, J.; Nikiforovski, A.; O'Shea, E.; Shah, P.; Wilson, K.; Worth, C.; Worthington, S.; Banerjee, I.
    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a condition characterised by severe and recurrent hypoglycaemia in infants and young children caused by inappropriate insulin over-secretion. CHI is of heterogeneous aetiology with a significant genetic component and is often unresponsive to standard medical therapy options. The treatment of CHI can be multifaceted and complex, requiring multidisciplinary input. It is important to manage hypoglycaemia in CHI promptly as the risk of long-term neurodisability arising from neuroglycopaenia is high. The UK CHI consensus on the practice and management of CHI was developed to optimise and harmonise clinical management of patients in centres specialising in CHI as well as in non-specialist centres engaged in collaborative, networked models of care. Using current best practice and a consensus approach, it provides guidance and practical advice in the domains of diagnosis, clinical assessment and treatment to mitigate hypoglycaemia risk and improve long term outcomes for health and well-being.
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    Insights into the genetics of menopausal vasomotor symptoms: genome-wide analyses of routinely-collected primary care health records
    (Springer, 2023-10-02) Ruth, K. S.; Beaumont, R. N.; Locke, J. M.; Tyrrell, J.; Crandall, C. J.; Hawkes, G.; Frayling, T. M.; Prague, J. K.; Patel, K. A.; Wood, A. R.; Weedon, M. N.; Murray, A.
    BACKGROUND: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) can often significantly impact women's quality of life at menopause. In vivo studies have shown that increased neurokinin B (NKB) / neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signalling contributes to VMS, with previous genetic studies implicating the TACR3 gene locus that encodes NK3R. Large-scale genomic analyses offer the possibility of biological insights but few such studies have collected data on VMS, while proxy phenotypes such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use are likely to be affected by changes in clinical practice. We investigated the genetic basis of VMS by analysing routinely-collected health records. METHODS: We performed a GWAS of VMS derived from linked primary-care records and cross-sectional self-reported HRT use in up to 153,152 women from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort. In a subset of this cohort (n = 39,356), we analysed exome-sequencing data to test the association with VMS of rare deleterious genetic variants. Finally, we used Mendelian randomisation analysis to investigate the reasons for HRT use over time. RESULTS: Our GWAS of health-records derived VMS identified a genetic signal near TACR3 associated with a lower risk of VMS (OR=0.76 (95% CI 0.72,0.80) per A allele, P=3.7x10(-27)), which was consistent with previous studies, validating this approach. Conditional analyses demonstrated independence of genetic signals for puberty timing and VMS at the TACR3 locus, including a rare variant predicted to reduce functional NK3R levels that was associated with later menarche (P = 5 × 10(-9)) but showed no association with VMS (P = 0.6). Younger menopause age was causally-associated with greater HRT use before 2002 but not after. CONCLUSIONS: We provide support for TACR3 in the genetic basis of VMS but unexpectedly find that rare genomic variants predicted to lower NK3R levels did not modify VMS, despite the proven efficacy of NK3R antagonists. Using genomics we demonstrate changes in genetic associations with HRT use over time, arising from a change in clinical practice since the early 2000s, which is likely to reflect a switch from preventing post-menopausal complications in women with earlier menopause to primarily treating VMS. Our study demonstrates that integrating routinely-collected primary care health records and genomic data offers great potential for exploring the genetic basis of symptoms.