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Research ouputs from RD&E staff


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 114
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    Differential impact of COVID-19 on mental health and burnout
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-04-01) Maniero, C.; Ng, S. M.; Collett, G.; Godec, T.; Siddiqui, I.; Antoniou, S.; Kumar, A.; Janmohamed, A.; Nair, S.; Kotecha, A.; Khan, R.; Khanji, M. Y.; Kapil, V.; Gupta, J.; Gupta, A. K.
    BACKGROUND: There may be differential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and burnout rates of healthcare professionals (HCPs) performing different roles. AIMS: To examine mental health and burnout rates, and possible drivers for any disparities between professional roles. METHODS: In this cohort study, online surveys were distributed to HCPs in July-September 2020 (baseline) and re-sent 4 months later (follow-up; December 2020) assessing for probable major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), insomnia, mental well-being and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Separate logistic regression models (at both phases) compared the risk of outcomes between roles: healthcare assistants (HCAs), nurses and midwives (nurses), allied health professionals (AHPs) and doctors (reference group). Separate linear regression models were also developed relating the change in scores to professional role. RESULTS: At baseline (n = 1537), nurses had a 1.9-fold and 2.5-fold increased risk of MDD and insomnia, respectively. AHPs had a 1.7-fold and 1.4-fold increased risk of MDD and emotional exhaustion, respectively. At follow-up (n = 736), the disproportionate risk between doctors and others worsened: nurses and HCAs were at 3.7-fold and 3.6-fold increased risk of insomnia, respectively. Nurses also had a significantly increased risk of MDD, GAD, poor mental well-being and burnout. Nurses also had significantly worsened anxiety, mental well-being and burnout scores over time, relative to doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses and AHPs had excess risk of adverse mental health and burnout during the pandemic, and this difference worsened over time (in nurses especially). Our findings support adoption of targeted strategies accounting for different HCP roles.
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    Eleven key measures for monitoring general practice clinical activity during COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study using 48 million adults' primary care records in England through OpenSAFELY
    (eLife Sciences Publications Ltd., 2023-07-01) Fisher, L.; Curtis, H. J.; Croker, R.; Wiedemann, M.; Speed, V.; Wood, C.; Brown, A.; Hopcroft, L. E. M.; Higgins, R.; Massey, J.; Inglesby, P.; Morton, C. E.; Walker, A. J.; Morley, J.; Mehrkar, A.; Bacon, S.; Hickman, G.; Macdonald, O.; Lewis, T.; Wood, M.; Myers, M.; Samuel, M.; Conibere, R.; Baqir, W.; Sood, H.; Drury, C.; Collison, K.; Bates, C.; Evans, D.; Dillingham, I.; Ward, T.; Davy, S.; Smith, R. M.; Hulme, W.; Green, A.; Parry, J.; Hester, F.; Harper, S.; Cockburn, J.; O'Hanlon, S.; Eavis, A.; Jarvis, R.; Avramov, D.; Griffiths, P.; Fowles, A.; Parkes, N.; MacKenna, B.; Goldacre, B.
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on delivery of NHS care. We have developed the OpenSAFELY Service Restoration Observatory (SRO) to develop key measures of primary care activity and describe the trends in these measures throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, we developed an open source software framework for data management and analysis to describe trends and variation in clinical activity across primary care electronic health record (EHR) data on 48 million adults.We developed SNOMED-CT codelists for key measures of primary care clinical activity such as blood pressure monitoring and asthma reviews, selected by an expert clinical advisory group and conducted a population cohort-based study to describe trends and variation in these measures January 2019-December 2021, and pragmatically classified their level of recovery one year into the pandemic using the percentage change in the median practice level rate. RESULTS: We produced 11 measures reflective of clinical activity in general practice. A substantial drop in activity was observed in all measures at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic. By April 2021, the median rate had recovered to within 15% of the median rate in April 2019 in six measures. The remaining measures showed a sustained drop, ranging from a 18.5% reduction in medication reviews to a 42.0% reduction in blood pressure monitoring. Three measures continued to show a sustained drop by December 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a substantial change in primary care activity across the measures we developed, with recovery in most measures. We delivered an open source software framework to describe trends and variation in clinical activity across an unprecedented scale of primary care data. We will continue to expand the set of key measures to be routinely monitored using our publicly available NHS OpenSAFELY SRO dashboards with near real-time data. FUNDING: This research used data assets made available as part of the Data and Connectivity National Core Study, led by Health Data Research UK in partnership with the Office for National Statistics and funded by UK Research and Innovation (grant ref MC_PC_20058).The OpenSAFELY Platform is supported by grants from the Wellcome Trust (222097/Z/20/Z); MRC (MR/V015757/1, MC_PC-20059, MR/W016729/1); NIHR (NIHR135559, COV-LT2-0073), and Health Data Research UK (HDRUK2021.000, 2021.0157).
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    Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Outcomes for Patients with Lung Cancer Receiving Curative-intent Radiotherapy in the UK
    (Elsevier, 2023-07-01) Fornacon-Wood, I.; Banfill, K.; Ahmad, S.; Britten, A.; Carson, C.; Dorey, N.; Hatton, M.; Hiley, C.; Thippu Jayaprakash, K.; Jegannathen, A.; Kidd, A. C.; Koh, P.; Panakis, N.; Peedell, C.; Peters, A.; Pope, A.; Powell, C.; Stilwell, C.; Thomas, B.; Toy, E.; Wicks, K.; Wood, V.; Yahya, S.; Price, G.; Faivre-Finn, C.
    AIMS: Previous work found that during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 34% of patients with lung cancer treated with curative-intent radiotherapy in the UK had a change to their centre's usual standard of care treatment (Banfill et al. Clin Oncol 2022;34:19-27). We present the impact of these changes on patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COVID-RT Lung database was a prospective multicentre UK cohort study including patients with stage I-III lung cancer referred for and/or treated with radical radiotherapy between April and October 2020. Data were collected on patient demographics, radiotherapy and systemic treatments, toxicity, relapse and death. Multivariable Cox and logistic regression were used to assess the impact of having a change to radiotherapy on survival, distant relapse and grade ≥3 acute toxicity. The impact of omitting chemotherapy on survival and relapse was assessed using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Patient and follow-up forms were available for 1280 patients. Seven hundred and sixty-five (59.8%) patients were aged over 70 years and 603 (47.1%) were female. The median follow-up was 213 days (119, 376). Patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had a change to their radiotherapy had no significant increase in distant relapse (P = 0.859) or death (P = 0.884); however, they did have increased odds of grade ≥3 acute toxicity (P = 0.0348). Patients with stage III NSCLC who had a change to their radiotherapy had no significant increase in distant relapse (P = 0.216) or death (P = 0.789); however, they did have increased odds of grade ≥3 acute toxicity (P < 0.001). Patients with stage III NSCLC who had their chemotherapy omitted had no significant increase in distant relapse (P = 0.0827) or death (P = 0.0661). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that changes to radiotherapy and chemotherapy made in response to the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect distant relapse or survival. Changes to radiotherapy, namely increased hypofractionation, led to increased odds of grade ≥3 acute toxicity. These results are important, as hypofractionated treatments can help to reduce hospital attendances in the context of potential future emergency situations.
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    A case of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis following administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine: a case report
    (BioMed Central, 2023-03-14) Williams, S. B. M.; Holwill, S. D. J.; Clissold, R. L.; Bingham, C.
    BACKGROUND: More than 4 billion doses of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine have been administered worldwide but the relationship between the different vaccines and the development of renal disease is unknown. We present a case of tubulointerstitial nephritis following administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously fit and well 51-year-old female presented on 27th May 2021 with a one-month history of weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and a metallic taste. She had an acute kidney injury with a creatinine of 484 umol/L. She was on no regular medications and denied taking any over-the-counter or alternative medicines. She had received her first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine on 23rd March 2021 and her second dose on 20th May 2021. A renal biopsy was performed the following day. The 19 glomeruli appeared normal to light microscopy but the tubulointerstitial compartment contained a dense inflammatory infiltrate including many eosinophils. There was widespread acute tubular injury with tubulitis, but no established or longstanding atrophy. A diagnosis was made of an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. She was commenced on oral prednisolone and her renal function improved. She did not require renal replacement therapy at any time. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this was the first described case of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis following administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, although a number of cases have emerged more recently. In our case the patient was very fit and well, had no previous past medical history and had not taken any recent prescribed, over-the-counter or alternative medications. The absence of these provoking factors in our case makes the vaccine the most likely explanation for the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis although the pathophysiology behind this remains unknown. Given the unprecedented number of vaccinations being delivered around the world, nephrologists should be aware of this possible link although more research into the topic is required.
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    Safe prescribing in cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: A new initiative from the UK Cancer Coronavirus Project (UKCCP) team
    (Wiley, 2022-12-01) Appanna, N.; Patel, G.; Burke, E.; Burnett, A.; Clark, J.; Mew, R.; Khan, S.; Little, M.; Liu, J.; Panneerselvam, H.; Patel, V.; Platt, J.; Tilby, M.; Watts, I.; Harper-Wynne, C.; Lee, L. Y.