Surgery and theatres

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Research outputs from the Theatres department at the RD&E.

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 29
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    Telephone assessment of new hernia referrals-is it possible?
    (Springer, 2023-08-01) Estridge, P.; Stell, D.; Bowles, M.; Kanwar, A.; Aroori, S.; Briggs, C.
    PURPOSE: Utilisation of remote clinics is increasing in healthcare settings worldwide. During the height of the COVID pandemic, our UK-based teaching hospital has trialled telephone assessment for new patients presenting with primary hernias. Selected cases are listed for elective repair of primary hernia direct from telephone clinic assessment. In March 2021, after this process had been in place for 13 months, departmental triage criteria were introduced, allocating patients to initial assessment in Face to Face or Telephone Clinics. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of telephone assessment, with specific attention to 'Day of Surgery' cancellation. We also assess the effect of our triage criteria on rate of 'Day of Surgery' cancellation. METHODS: Departmental diaries were studied retrospectively to identify patients listed for hernia repair between February 2020 and February 2022. Data were obtained from clinic letters, discharge paperwork and operating lists, as well as from management teams. Fishers Exact test was used to compare groups seen either face to face or remotely as well and pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: 325 patients were listed for hernia repair, 56 after telephone assessment. 6 (11%) of those listed from telephone clinic were cancelled on the day of surgery, compared with 34 (13%) of those seen face to face. With triage criteria in place, listing from telephone clinic increased significantly from 14 to 27%. Overall day of surgery cancellations reduced from 13 to 9%. Rate of day of surgery cancellation in those assessed in telephone clinic reduced from 12 to 9%. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference between day of surgery cancellations after face to face or telephone clinic assessment. Triage criteria for telephone assessment appear to increase the numbers being listed after remote clinics. This did not significantly impact the number of day of surgery cancellations.
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    Total Talus Replacements
    (Sage, 2023-01-01) Jennison, T.; Dalgleish, J.; Sharpe, I.; Davies, M.; Goldberg, A.
    BACKGROUND: Total talus replacements are a surgical treatment for talar avascular necrosis (AVN) replacing the entire talus. The potential for total talus replacements has increased with the advent of patient-specific implants using 3D printing based on computed tomographic scanning of the ipsilateral or contralateral talus. The primary aim of this review is to summarize the literature on total talus replacements, providing a historical survey, indications, controversies, complications, survival, and functional outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was performed. Articles with survival of total talus replacements were included. Basic percentages and a critical review of the literature was performed. RESULTS: Nine articles with 115 patients were included. The mean age ranged from 27.6 to 72 years, but with 5 studies having a mean age of <50 years. Mean follow-up ranged from 12.8 to 152 months. The most common indication was avascular necrosis in 67 patients (58%). Five studies used customized implants and 4 studies used 3D printing. Four studies used ceramic prostheses, 3 cobalt chromium, 1 stainless steel, and 1 titanium with ceramic surface. Three studies involved a talus replacement in conjunction with an ankle replacement. Postoperative complications ranged from 0% to 33%. Of 24 functional outcomes scores, 66.7% demonstrated significant improvement. CONCLUSION: Total talus replacements are a promising alternative to tibiotalocalcaneal fusion for patients with avascular necrosis of the talus; however, further studies are required to ensure reliable outcomes prior to widespread adoption of this technology. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, review of case series.
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    Artificial intelligence as a diagnostic aid in cross-sectional radiological imaging of surgical pathology in the abdominopelvic cavity: a systematic review
    (BMJ, 2023-03-06) Fowler, G. E.; Blencowe, N. S.; Hardacre, C.; Callaway, M. P.; Smart, N. J.; Macefield, R.
    OBJECTIVES: There is emerging use of artificial intelligence (AI) models to aid diagnostic imaging. This review examined and critically appraised the application of AI models to identify surgical pathology from radiological images of the abdominopelvic cavity, to identify current limitations and inform future research. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Systematic database searches (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were performed. Date limitations (January 2012 to July 2021) were applied. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary research studies were considered for eligibility using the PIRT (participants, index test(s), reference standard and target condition) framework. Only publications in the English language were eligible for inclusion in the review. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study characteristics, descriptions of AI models and outcomes assessing diagnostic performance were extracted by independent reviewers. A narrative synthesis was performed in accordance with the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2)). RESULTS: Fifteen retrospective studies were included. Studies were diverse in surgical specialty, the intention of the AI applications and the models used. AI training and test sets comprised a median of 130 (range: 5-2440) and 37 (range: 10-1045) patients, respectively. Diagnostic performance of models varied (range: 70%-95% sensitivity, 53%-98% specificity). Only four studies compared the AI model with human performance. Reporting of studies was unstandardised and often lacking in detail. Most studies (n=14) were judged as having overall high risk of bias with concerns regarding applicability. CONCLUSIONS: AI application in this field is diverse. Adherence to reporting guidelines is warranted. With finite healthcare resources, future endeavours may benefit from targeting areas where radiological expertise is in high demand to provide greater efficiency in clinical care. Translation to clinical practice and adoption of a multidisciplinary approach should be of high priority. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021237249.
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    Impact of Maximal Transurethral Resection on Pathological Outcomes at Cystectomy in a Large, Multi-institutional Cohort
    (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2023-02-16) Kirk, P. S.; Lotan, Y.; Zargar, H.; Fairey, A. S.; Dinney, C. P.; Mir, M. C.; Krabbe, L. M.; Cookson, M. S.; Jacobson, N. E.; Montgomery, J. S.; Vasdev, N.; Yu, E. Y.; Xylinas, E.; Kassouf, W.; Dall'Era, M. A.; Sridhar, S. S.; McGrath, J. S.; Aning, J.; Shariat, S. F.; Thorpe, A. C.; Morgan, T. M.; Holzbeierlein, J. M.; Bivalacqua, T. J.; North, S.; Barocas, D. A.; Grivas, P.; Garcia, J. A.; Stephenson, A. J.; Shah, J. B.; Daneshmand, S.; Spiess, P. E.; van Rhijn, B. W. G.; Mertens, L.; Black, P.; Wright, J. L.
    PURPOSE: While the presence of residual disease at the time of radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is an established prognostic indicator, controversy remains regarding the importance of maximal transurethral resection prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We characterized the influence of maximal transurethral resection on pathological and survival outcomes using a large, multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 785 patients from a multi-institutional cohort undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We employed bivariate comparisons and stratified multivariable models to quantify the effect of maximal transurethral resection on pathological findings at cystectomy and survival. RESULTS: Of 785 patients, 579 (74%) underwent maximal transurethral resection. Incomplete transurethral resection was more frequent in patients with more advanced clinical tumor (cT) and nodal (cN) stage (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively), with more advanced ypT stage at cystectomy and higher rates of positive surgical margins (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). In multivariable models, maximal transurethral resection was associated with downstaging at cystectomy (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5). In Cox proportional hazards analysis, maximal transurethral resection was not associated with overall survival (adjusted HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.1). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing transurethral resection for muscle-invasive bladder cancer prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, maximal resection may improve pathological response at cystectomy. However, the ultimate effects on long-term survival and oncologic outcomes warrant further investigation.
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    A Randomized Trial of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Versus Alternative Forms of Surgical Cartilage Management in Patients With a Failed Primary Treatment for Chondral or Osteochondral Defects in the Knee
    (Sage, 2023-02-01) Snow, M.; Middleton, L.; Mehta, S.; Roberts, A.; Gray, R.; Richardson, J.; Kuiper, J. H.; Smith, A.; White, S.; Roberts, S.; Griffiths, D.; Mohammed, A.; Moholkar, K.; Ashraf, T.; Green, M.; Hutchinson, J.; Bhullar, T.; Chitnis, S.; Shaw, A.; van Niekerk, L.; Hui, A.; Drogset, J. O.; Knutsen, G.; McNicholas, M.; Bowditch, M.; Johnson, D.; Turner, P.; Chugh, S.; Hunt, N.; Ali, S.; Palmer, S.; Perry, A.; Davidson, A.; Hill, P.; Deo, S.; Satish, V.; Radford, M.; Langstaff, R.; Houlihan-Burne, D.; Spicer, D.; Phaltankar, P.; Hegab, A.; Marsh, D.; Cannon, S.; Briggs, T.; Pollock, R.; Carrington, R.; Skinner, J.; Bentley, G.; Price, A.; Schranz, P.; Mandalia, V.; O'Brien, S.
    BACKGROUND: There are limited randomized controlled trials with long-term outcomes comparing autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) versus alternative forms of surgical cartilage management within the knee. PURPOSE: To determine at 5 years after surgery whether ACI was superior to alternative forms of cartilage management in patients after a failed previous treatment for chondral or osteochondral defects in the knee. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: In total, 390 participants were randomly assigned to receive either ACI or alternative management. Patients aged 18 to 55 years with one or two symptomatic cartilage defects who had failed 1 previous therapeutic surgical procedure in excess of 6 months prior were included. Dual primary outcome measures were used: (1) patient-completed Lysholm knee score and (2) time from surgery to cessation of treatment benefit. Secondary outcome measures included International Knee Documentation Committee and Cincinnati Knee Rating System scores, as well as number of serious adverse events. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: Lysholm scores were improved by 1 year in both groups (15.4 points [95% CI, 11.9 to 18.8] and 15.2 points [95% CI, 11.6 to 18.9]) for ACI and alternative, with this improvement sustained over the duration of the trial. However, no evidence of a difference was found between the groups at 5 years (2.9 points; 95% CI, -1.8 to 7.5; P = .46). Approximately half of the participants (55%; 95% CI, 47% to 64% with ACI) were still experiencing benefit at 5 years, with time to cessation of treatment benefit similar in both groups (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.32; P > .99). There was a differential effect on Lysholm scores in patients without previous marrow stimulation compared with those with marrow stimulation (P = .03; 6.4 points in favor of ACI; 95% CI, -0.4 to 13.1). More participants experienced a serious adverse event with ACI (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Over 5 years, there was no evidence of a difference in Lysholm scores between ACI and alternative management in patients who had previously failed treatment. Previous marrow stimulation had a detrimental effect on the outcome of ACI. REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: 48911177.