Infection prevention and control

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Research outputs from the RD&E Infection Prevention & Control Team.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 14
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    Vaccinating Adolescents and Children Significantly Reduces COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality across All Ages: A Population-Based Modeling Study Using the UK as an Example
    (MDPI, 2021-10-15) Shiri, T.; Evans, M.; Talarico, C. A.; Morgan, A. R.; Mussad, M.; Buck, P. O.; McEwan, P.; Strain, W. D.
    Debate persists around the risk-benefit balance of vaccinating adolescents and children against COVID-19. Central to this debate is quantifying the contribution of adolescents and children to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential impact of vaccinating these age groups. In this study, we present a novel SEIR mathematical disease transmission model that quantifies the impact of different vaccination strategies on population-level SARS-CoV-2 infections and clinical outcomes. The model employs both age- and time-dependent social mixing patterns to capture the impact of changes in restrictions. The model was used to assess the impact of vaccinating adolescents and children on the natural history of the COVID-19 pandemic across all age groups, using the UK as an example. The base case model demonstrates significant increases in COVID-19 disease burden in the UK following a relaxation of restrictions, if vaccines are limited to those ≥18 years and vulnerable adolescents (≥12 years). Including adolescents and children in the vaccination program could reduce overall COVID-related mortality by 57%, and reduce cases of long COVID by 75%. This study demonstrates that vaccinating adolescents and children has the potential to play a vital role in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections, and subsequent COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, across all ages. Our results have major global public health implications and provide valuable information to inform a potential pandemic exit strategy.
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    The role of an infection prevention and control nurse
    (International Centre for Eye Health, 2021-06-25) West, J.
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    Impact of COVID-19 and other infectious conditions requiring isolation on the provision of and adaptations to fundamental nursing care in hospital in terms of overall patient experience, care quality, functional ability, and treatment outcomes: systematic review
    (Wiley, 2021-08-23) Whear, R.; Abbott, R. A.; Bethel, A.; Richards, D. A.; Garside, R.; Cockcroft, E.; Iles-Smith, H.; Logan, P. A.; Rafferty, A. M.; Shepherd, M.; Sugg, H. V. R.; Russell, A. M.; Cruickshank, S.; Tooze, S.; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Thompson Coon, J.
    AIM: This systematic review identifies, appraises and synthesizes the evidence on the provision of fundamental nursing care to hospitalized patients with a highly infectious virus and the effectiveness of adaptations to overcome barriers to care. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: In July 2020, we searched Medline, PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), BNI (ProQuest), WHO COVID-19 Database ( MedRxiv (, bioRxiv ( and also Google Scholar, TRIP database and NICE Evidence, forwards citation searching and reference checking of included papers, from 2016 onwards. REVIEW METHODS: We included quantitative and qualitative research reporting (i) the views, perceptions and experiences of patients who have received fundamental nursing care whilst in hospital with COVID-19, MERS, SARS, H1N1 or EVD or (ii) the views, perceptions and experiences of professional nurses and non-professionally registered care workers who have provided that care. We included review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents. One reviewer performed data extraction and quality appraisal and was checked by another person. RESULTS: Of 3086 references, we included 64 articles; 19 empirical research and 45 review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents spanning five pandemics. Four main themes (and 11 sub-themes) were identified. Barriers to delivering fundamental care were wearing personal protective equipment, adequate staffing, infection control procedures and emotional challenges of care. These barriers were addressed by multiple adaptations to communication, organization of care, staff support and leadership. CONCLUSION: To prepare for continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics, evaluative studies of adaptations to fundamental healthcare delivery must be prioritized to enable evidence-based care to be provided in future. IMPACT: Our review identifies the barriers nurses experience in providing fundamental care during a pandemic, highlights potential adaptations that address barriers and ensure positive healthcare experiences and draws attention to the need for evaluative research on fundamental care practices during pandemics.
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    Achieving Influenza Vaccine Uptake Target in Canada via a Pharmacy-Led Telephone Discussion during the 2019-2020 Season
    (MDPI, 2021-03-26) Strain, William David; Mansi, James; Boikos, Constantina; Boivin, Michael; Fisher, William A.
    Older adults (≥65 years) are at elevated risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Many developed countries do not achieve the World Health Organization influenza immunization target of 75% in people ≥65 years. We aimed to determine whether a brief pharmacy phone call could increase vaccine uptake of standard and enhanced influenza. Twenty-eight community pharmacists across Canada performed a telephone consultation with 643 older adults whose primary care records indicated that they had not received their influenza vaccination from their usual practitioner. Of these 643 adults, 169 (26.3%) had been vaccinated in another setting. Of the remaining 474, 313 (66%) agreed to receive the vaccine. Of those who refused vaccination, 69 provided a rationale for not wanting it, including that the flu shot "causes the flu" (n = 25), "doesn't work" (n = 25), "is too painful" (n = 10), and other (n = 10). Overall, of the 643 individuals who had not received their vaccination from their usual health care provider in the first wave of vaccinations, 75.4% (n = 485) ultimately received their vaccination in the 2019-2020 season. This highlights the important role of the community pharmacist in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) targets for vaccination.
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    Safety and Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine
    (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2021-06-30) Heath, P. T.; Galiza, E. P.; Baxter, D. N.; Boffito, M.; Browne, D.; Burns, F.; Chadwick, D. R.; Clark, R.; Cosgrove, C.; Galloway, J.; Goodman, A. L.; Heer, A.; Higham, A.; Iyengar, S.; Jamal, A.; Jeanes, C.; Kalra, P. A.; Kyriakidou, C.; McAuley, D. F.; Meyrick, A.; Minassian, A. M.; Minton, J.; Moore, P.; Munsoor, I.; Nicholls, H.; Osanlou, O.; Packham, J.; Pretswell, C. H.; San Francisco Ramos, A.; Saralaya, D.; Sheridan, R. P.; Smith, R.; Soiza, R. L.; Swift, P. A.; Thomson, E. C.; Turner, J.; Viljoen, M. E.; Albert, G.; Cho, I.; Dubovsky, F.; Glenn, G.; Rivers, J.; Robertson, A.; Smith, K.; Toback, S.
    BACKGROUND: Early clinical data from studies of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (Novavax), a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that contains the full-length spike glycoprotein of the prototype strain plus Matrix-M adjuvant, showed that the vaccine was safe and associated with a robust immune response in healthy adult participants. Additional data were needed regarding the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of this vaccine in a larger population. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 33 sites in the United Kingdom, we assigned adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular 5-?g doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo administered 21 days apart. The primary efficacy end point was virologically confirmed mild, moderate, or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection with an onset at least 7 days after the second injection in participants who were serologically negative at baseline. RESULTS: A total of 15,187 participants underwent randomization, and 14,039 were included in the per-protocol efficacy population. Of the participants, 27.9% were 65 years of age or older, and 44.6% had coexisting illnesses. Infections were reported in 10 participants in the vaccine group and in 96 in the placebo group, with a symptom onset of at least 7 days after the second injection, for a vaccine efficacy of 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2 to 94.6). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported among the 10 cases in the vaccine group. Five cases of severe infection were reported, all of which were in the placebo group. A post hoc analysis showed an efficacy of 86.3% (95% CI, 71.3 to 93.5) against the B.1.1.7 (or alpha) variant and 96.4% (95% CI, 73.8 to 99.5) against non-B.1.1.7 variants. Reactogenicity was generally mild and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine administered to adult participants conferred 89.7% protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and showed high efficacy against the B.1.1.7 variant. (Funded by Novavax; EudraCT number, 2020-004123-16.).