Exeter Knee Reconstruction Unit (EKRU)

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Research outputs from the Exeter Knee Reconstruction Unit at the RD&E.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 73
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    Posterior Tibial Slope in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery: A Systematic Review
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2023-09-01) Mandalia, V.; Bayley, M.; Bhamber, N.; Middleton, S.; Houston, J.
    BACKGROUND: While the literature suggests a correlation between posterior tibial slope and sagittal stability of the knee, there is a lack of consensus relating to how to measure the slope, what a normal slope value would be, and which critical values should guide extra surgical treatment. We performed a systematic literature review looking at the posterior tibial slope and cruciate ligament surgery. Our aims were to define a gold standard measurement technique of posterior tibial slope, as well as determining its normal range and the important values for consideration of adjuncts during cruciate ligament surgery. METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, and NICE in June 2020 were completed. Inclusion criteria were original studies in peer-reviewed English language journals. A quality assessment of included studies was completed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) Criteria. RESULTS: Two-hundred and twenty-one papers were identified; following exclusions 34 papers were included for data collection. The mean MINORS score was 13.8 for non-comparative studies and 20.4 for comparative studies, both indicating fair to good quality studies. A large variation in the posterior tibial slope measurement technique was identified, resulting in a wide range of values reported. A significant variation in slope value also existed between different races, ages and genders. CONCLUSION: Cautiously, the authors suggest a normal range of 6-12º, using the proximal tibial axis at 5 and 15 cms below the joint. We suggest 12º as a cut-off value for slope-reducing osteotomy as an adjunct to revision ligament reconstruction.
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    The effects of open wedge high tibial osteotomy for knee osteoarthritis on the patellofemoral joint. A systematic review
    (Elsevier, 2023-01-01) Kurien, T.; East, J.; Mandalia, V.
    BACKGROUND (INCLUDING AIMS OF THE STUDY): To investigate the impact medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) has on the progression of patellofemoral (PF) OA, patella height, contact pressure within the PF joint and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in January 2022 according to PRISMA guidelines. The ICRS cartilage grade of the PF joint at the initial MOWHTO surgery and at second look surgery was compared and relative risk of progression of PF OA was calculated. Evaluation of patella height was assessed by Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index or Insall-Salvati index pre and post MOWHTO. Cadaveric studies assessing contact pressures in the PF after MOWHTO were included. RESULTS: Forty-two studies comparing 2419 patients were included. The mean age was 53.1 years (16-84), 61.3% female. The risk of progression of PF OA was highest in the uniplanar and biplanar MOWHTO with proximal tubercle osteotomy groups (RR = 1.28-1.51) compared to biplanar MOHWTO with distal tubercle osteotomy (RR = 0.96-1.04). Patella height was not affected after biplanar MOWHTO with distal tubercle osteotomy (p < 0.001). Cadaveric studies demonstrate that PF contact pressures increase with more severe corrections (15°) but suggest biplanar MWOHTO and distal tubercle osteotomy induces lower contact pressures within the PF joint than other MOWHTO techniques. Significant over correction is associated with worse clinical outcomes and anterior knee pain. CONCLUSION: Biplanar MOWHTO and distal tubercle osteotomy has minimal effect on the contact pressures in the PF joint resulting in less severe progression of PF OA and has minimal impact on patella height.
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    Cost-effectiveness of a new ACI technique for the treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee compared to regularly used ACI technique and microfracture
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2023-03-28) Snow, M.; Mandalia, V.; Custers, R.; Emans, P. J.; Kon, E.; Niemeyer, P.; Verdonk, R.; Gaissmaier, C.; Roeder, A.; Weinand, S.; Zöllner, Y.; Schubert, T.
    AIMS: For patients with cartilage defects of the knee, a new biocompatible and in situ cross-linkable albumin-hyaluronan-based hydrogel has been developed for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation (M-ACI) - NOVOCART® Inject plus (NInject)1. We aimed to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of NInject, that is not available on the market, yet compared to spheroids of human autologous matrix-associated chondrocytes (Spherox(®))2 and microfracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An early Markov model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness in the United Kingdom (UK) from the payer perspective. Transition probabilities, response rates, utility values and costs were derived from literature. Since NInject has not yet been launched and no prices are available, its costs were assumed equal to those of Spherox(®). Cycle length was set at one year and the time horizon chosen was notional patients' remaining lifetime. Model robustness was evaluated with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA; PSA) and value of information (VOI) analysis. The Markov model was built using TreeAge Pro Healthcare. RESULTS: NInject was cost-effective compared to microfracture (ICER: ₤5,147) while Spherox® was extendedly dominated. In sensitivity analyses, the ICER exceeded conventional WTP threshold of ₤20,000 only when the utility value after successful first treatment with NInject was decreased by 20% (ICER: ₤69,620). PSA corroborated the cost-effectiveness findings of NInject, compared to both alternatives, with probabilities of 60% of NInject undercutting the aforementioned WTP threshold and being the most cost-effective alternative. The VOIA revealed that obtaining additional evidence on the new technology will likely not be cost-effective for the UK National Health Service. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSION: This early Markov model showed that NInject is cost-effective for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee, compared to Spherox and microfracture. However, as the final price of NInject has yet to be determined, the cost-effectiveness analysis performed in this study is provisional, assuming equal prices for NInject and Spherox.
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    Surgeon and physiotherapist approaches to operative or non-operative management of people with recurrent patellar dislocation: A case-based UK survey
    (Wiley, 2022-11-18) Irving, L.; Smith, T. O.; Mandalia, V. I.; Pratt, A.; Dowen, D.
    BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists are often key decision-makers on when to refer patients with recurrent patellar dislocation for surgical opinion. Limited guidance exists to aid this decision. Differences in orthopaedic surgeons' and physiotherapists' views on which patients and when to refer people for surgical consideration or non-operative care may affect outcome. This study aimed to explore orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists decision-making surrounding treatment opinions for patients with recurrent patellar dislocation. METHODS: An online survey performed. UK registered and practicing orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists were invited to participate. The survey utilised two vignettes and a series of related questions to ascertain respondents' views on decision-making to surgical referral for people with recurrent patellar dislocation. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests to explore factors related to responses. RESULTS: Eighty four respondent surveys were analysed (38 surgeons, 46 physiotherapists). Overall, there was a low level of agreement amongst respondents for the management of the vignettes (k = 0.215, p = < 0.0005). Some disparity existed between the professions on the definition of recurrent patellar dislocations and the clinical features which may require an early surgical assessment. Physiotherapists were three times more likely to delay a surgical opinion for the vignettes presented in this study than the surgeons. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to investigate orthopaedic surgeons' and physiotherapists' views on decision-making around surgical or non-operative management for recurrent patellar dislocations. High-quality research is required to underpin explicit guidance on decision-making regarding management of recurrent patellar dislocation.
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    Personalised 3D Printed high tibial osteotomy achieves a high level of accuracy: 'IDEAL' preclinical stage evaluation of a novel patient specific system
    (Elsevier, 2022-10-01) MacLeod, A. R.; Mandalia, V. I.; Mathews, J. A.; Toms, A. D.; Gill, H. S.
    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an effective surgical treatment for isolated medial compartment knee osteoarthritis; however, widespread adoption is limited due to difficulty in achieving the planned correction, and patient dissatisfaction due to soft tissue irritation. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a novel HTO system with 3D printed patient specific implants and surgical guides using cadaveric specimens. Local ethics committee approval was obtained. The novel opening wedge HTO procedure was performed on eight cadaver leg specimens. Whole lower limb CT scans pre- and post-operatively provided geometrical assessment quantifying the discrepancy between pre-planned and post-operative measurements for key variables: the gap opening angle and the patient specific surgical instrumentation positioning. The average discrepancy between the pre-operative plan and the post-operative osteotomy correction angle was: 0.0 ± 0.2° The R2 value for the regression correlation was 0.95. The average error in implant positioning was -0.4 ± 4.3 mm, -2.6 ± 3.4 mm and 3.1 ± 1.7° vertically, horizontally, and rotationally respectively. This novel HTO surgery has greater accuracy in correction angle achieved compared to that reported for conventional or other patient specific methods with published data available. This system could potentially improve the accuracy of osteotomy correction angles achieved surgically.