Healthcare for Older People

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Research outputs from the Healthcare for Older People department at the RD&E.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 117
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    Impact of interventions to improve recovery of older adults following planned hospital admission on quality-of-life following discharge: linked-evidence synthesis
    (NIHR Journals Library, 2023-11-01) Kinsey, D.; Febrey, S.; Briscoe, S.; Kneale, D.; Thompson Coon, J.; Carrieri, D.; Lovegrove, C.; McGrath, J.; Hemsley, A.; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Shaw, L.; Nunns, M.
    OBJECTIVES: To understand the impact of multicomponent interventions to improve recovery of older adults following planned hospital treatment, we conducted two systematic reviews, one of quantitative and one of qualitative evidence, and an overarching synthesis. These aimed to: • understand the effect of multicomponent interventions which aim to enhance recovery and/or reduce length of stay on patient-reported outcomes and health and social care utilisation • understand the experiences of patients, carers and staff involved in the delivery of interventions • understand how different aspects of the content and delivery of interventions may influence patient outcomes. REVIEW METHODS: We searched bibliographic databases including MEDLINE ALL, Embase and the Health Management Information Consortium, CENTRAL, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, conducted forward and backward citation searching and examined reference lists of topically similar qualitative reviews. Bibliographic database searches were completed in May/June 2021 and updated in April 2022. We sought primary research from high-income countries regarding hospital inpatients with a mean/median age of minimum 60 years, undergoing planned surgery. Patients experienced any multicomponent hospital-based intervention to reduce length of stay or improve recovery. Quantitative outcomes included length of stay and any patient-reported outcome or experience or service utilisation measure. Qualitative research focused on the experiences of patients, carers/family and staff of interventions received. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool or an adapted version of the Wallace checklist. We used random-effects meta-analysis to synthesise quantitative data where appropriate, meta-ethnography for qualitative studies and qualitative comparative analysis for the overarching synthesis. RESULTS: Quantitative review: Included 125 papers. Forty-nine studies met criteria for further synthesis. Enhanced recovery protocols resulted in improvements to length of stay, without detriment to other outcomes, with minimal improvement in patient-reported outcome measures for patients admitted for lower-limb or colorectal surgery. Qualitative review: Included 43 papers, 35 of which were prioritised for synthesis. We identified six themes: 'Home as preferred environment for recovery', 'Feeling safe', 'Individualisation of structured programme', 'Taking responsibility', 'Essential care at home' and 'Outcomes'. Overarching synthesis: Intervention components which trigger successful interventions represent individualised approaches that allow patients to understand their treatment, ask questions and build supportive relationships and strategies to help patients monitor their progress and challenge themselves through early mobilisation. DISCUSSION: Interventions to reduce hospital length of stay for older adults following planned surgery are effective, without detriment to other patient outcomes. Findings highlight the need to reconsider how to evaluate patient recovery from the perspective of the patient. Trials did not routinely evaluate patient mid- to long-term outcomes. Furthermore, when they did evaluate patient outcomes, reporting is often incomplete or conducted using a narrow range of patient-reported outcome measures or limited through asking the wrong people the wrong questions, with lack of longer-term evaluation. Findings from the qualitative and overarching synthesis will inform policy-making regarding commissioning and delivering services to support patients, carers and families before, during and after planned admission to hospital. STUDY REGISTRATION: This trial is registered as PROSPERO registration number CRD42021230620. FUNDING: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme (NIHR award ref: 130576) and is published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research; Vol. 11, No. 23. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information. More patients aged 60 or over need planned surgery. These patients are more likely to experience difficulties, such as urinary infections or falls, whilst in hospital, so should not spend more time in hospital than necessary. Hospitals use strategies that shorten hospital stay, but we do not know how older patients, or carers, feel about these, or whether they help patients recover in the long term. We wanted to know: how leaving hospital sooner affects how older patients feel and recover after planned surgery; how older patients, carers and staff feel about strategies designed to support older patients to go home earlier; which parts of these hospital care strategies work best? We brought together research about hospital care strategies that shorten the length of time older patients spend in hospital. We looked at patient questionnaires and interviews with patients, carers and hospital staff. Patients and carers helped us plan our research, understand our findings and consider who to share these with. hospital strategies to reduce hospital stay achieve this, without increasing risk of complications; information and follow-up care for patients and carers after discharge are essential; strategies which consider the individual needs of patients and help them understand their treatment, focus on their recovery goals and develop supportive relationships with staff were linked to better outcomes; lots of studies were excluded because they did not use patient questionnaires. Studies using questionnaires often focused on aspects of care delivered whilst patients were in hospital. Carers’ voices were often overlooked. Research is needed to develop patient questionnaires to more fully capture the experiences of patients and carers and support hospitals to develop care strategies focused on the needs of individual patients and carers. eng
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    Predictors and prognosis of population-based subjective cognitive decline: longitudinal evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)
    (BMJ, 2023-10-16) Ball, H. A.; Coulthard, E.; Fish, M.; Bayer, A.; Gallacher, J.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.
    OBJECTIVES: To understand associations between the subjective experience of cognitive decline and objective cognition. This subjective experience is often conceptualised as an early step towards neurodegeneration, but this has not been scrutinised at the population level. An alternative explanation is poor meta-cognition, the extreme of which is seen in functional cognitive disorder (FCD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort (Caerphilly Prospective Study). SETTING: Population-based, South Wales, UK. PARTICIPANTS: This men-only study began in 1979; 1225 men participated at an average age of 73 in 2002-2004, including assessments of simple subjective cognitive decline (sSCD, defined as a subjective report of worsening memory or concentration). Dementia outcomes were followed up to 2012-2014. Data on non-completers was additionally obtained from death certificates and local health records. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was incident dementia over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures included prospective change in objective cognition and cross-sectional cognitive internal inconsistency (the existence of a cognitive ability at some times, and its absence at other times, with no intervening explanatory factors except for focus of attention). RESULTS: sSCD was common (30%) and only weakly associated with prior objective cognitive decline (sensitivity 36% (95% CI 30 to 42) and specificity 72% (95% CI 68 to 75)). Independent predictors of sSCD were older age, poor sleep quality and higher trait anxiety. Those with sSCD did not have excess cognitive internal inconsistency, but results suggested a mild attentional deficit. sSCD did not predict objective cognitive change (linear regression coefficient -0.01 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.15)) nor dementia (odds ratio 1.35 (0.61 to 2.99)) 10 years later. CONCLUSIONS: sSCD is weakly associated with prior objective cognitive decline and does not predict future cognition. Prior sleep difficulties and anxiety were the most robust predictors of sSCD. sSCD in the absence of objective decline appears to be a highly prevalent example of poor meta-cognition (ie, poor self-awareness of cognitive performance), which could be a driver for later FCD.
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    Dementia classification using a graph neural network on imaging of effective brain connectivity
    (Elsevier, 2023-11-15) Cao, J.; Yang, L.; Sarrigiannis, P. G.; Blackburn, D.; Zhao, Y.
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. The literature suggests that effective brain connectivity (EBC) has the potential to track differences between AD, PD and healthy controls (HC). However, how to effectively use EBC estimations for the research of disease diagnosis remains an open problem. To deal with complex brain networks, graph neural network (GNN) has been increasingly popular in very recent years and the effectiveness of combining EBC and GNN techniques has been unexplored in the field of dementia diagnosis. In this study, a novel directed structure learning GNN (DSL-GNN) was developed and performed on the imaging of EBC estimations and power spectrum density (PSD) features. In comparison to the previous studies on GNN, our proposed approach enhanced the functionality for processing directional information, which builds the basis for more efficiently performing GNN on EBC. Another contribution of this study is the creation of a new framework for applying univariate and multivariate features simultaneously in a classification task. The proposed framework and DSL-GNN are validated in four discrimination tasks and our approach exhibited the best performance, against the existing methods, with the highest accuracy of 94.0% (AD vs. HC), 94.2% (PD vs. HC), 97.4% (AD vs. PD) and 93.0% (AD vs. PD vs. HC). In a word, this research provides a robust analytical framework to deal with complex brain networks containing causal directional information and implies promising potential in the diagnosis of two of the most common neurodegenerative conditions.
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    Builder, Expert, Disruptor, Leader: The Many Roles of People with Lived Experience
    (Ubiquity Press, 2023-08-23) Miller, R.; Ehrenberg, N.; Jackson, C.; Penwarden, H.; Stein, V.; van der Vlegel-Brouwer, W.; Wojtak, A.
    People with lived experience of health and social care, including family carers, should be at the heart of integrated care policy and practice. One of the challenges to achieving such co-production is insufficient clarity and limited understanding of the different roles that people with lived experience are asked or choose to undertake. Following research and workshops, four roles have been identified - community builder, improvement expert, disruptor/advocate, and citizen leader. Recognising the distinct contribution and demands of these roles will enable appropriate support and development for people with lived experience and the professionals and managers with whom they collaborate.
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    PROTOCOL: Health and social care interventions in the 80 years old and over population: An evidence and gap map
    (Wiley Open Access, 2023-06-01) Abbott, R.; Thompson Coon, J.; Bethel, A.; Rogers, M.; Whear, R.; Orr, N.; Garside, R.; Goodwin, V.; Mahmoud, A.; Lourida, I.; Cheeseman, D.
    This is the protocol for a Campbell systematic review. The objectives are as follows: identify available systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials on interventions targeting health or social needs of the people aged over 80; identify qualitative studies relating to the experiences of people aged over 80 of interventions that target their health or social needs; identify areas where systematic reviews are needed; identify gaps in evidence where further primary research is needed; assess equity considerations (using the PROGRESS plus criteria) in available systematic reviews, randomised trials and qualitative studies of identified interventions; assess gaps and evidence related to health equity.