Clinical and Biomedical Sciences

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    Correction: Evaluation of in silico pathogenicity prediction tools for the classification of small in-frame indels
    (Springer, 2023-11-16) Cannon, S.; Williams, M.; Gunning, A. C.; Wright, C. F.
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    Phenotypic effect of GBA1 variants in individuals with and without Parkinson's disease: The RAPSODI study
    (Elsevier, 2023-11-01) Toffoli, M.; Chohan, H.; Mullin, S.; Jesuthasan, A.; Yalkic, S.; Koletsi, S.; Menozzi, E.; Rahall, S.; Limbachiya, N.; Loefflad, N.; Higgins, A.; Bestwick, J.; Lucas-Del-Pozo, S.; Fierli, F.; Farbos, A.; Mezabrovschi, R.; Lee-Yin, C.; Schrag, A.; Moreno-Martinez, D.; Hughes, D.; Noyce, A.; Colclough, K.; Jeffries, A. R.; Proukakis, C.; Schapira, A. H. V.
    BACKGROUND: Variants in the GBA1 gene cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease (GD). They are also risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), and modify the expression of the PD phenotype. The penetrance of GBA1 variants in PD is incomplete, and the ability to determine who among GBA1 variant carriers are at higher risk of developing PD, would represent an advantage for prognostic and trial design purposes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the motor and non-motor phenotype of GBA1 carriers and non-carriers. METHODS: We present the cross-sectional results of the baseline assessment from the RAPSODI study, an online assessment tool for PD patients and GBA1 variant carriers. The assessment includes clinically validated questionnaires, a tap-test, the University of Pennsyllvania Smell Identification Test and cognitive tests. Additional, homogeneous data from the PREDICT-PD cohort were included. RESULTS: A total of 379 participants completed all parts of the RAPSODI assessment (89 GBA1-negative controls, 169 GBA1-negative PD, 47 GBA1-positive PD, 47 non-affected GBA1 carriers, 27 GD). Eighty-six participants were recruited through PREDICT-PD (43 non-affected GBA1 carriers and 43 GBA1-negative controls). GBA1-positive PD patients showed worse performance in visual cognitive tasks and olfaction compared to GBA1-negative PD patients. No differences were detected between non-affected GBA1 carriers carriers and GBA1-negative controls. No phenotypic differences were observed between any of the non-PD groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous evidence that GBA1-positive PD has a specific phenotype with more severe non-motor symptoms. However, we did not reproduce previous findings of more frequent prodromal PD signs in non-affected GBA1 carriers.
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    Precision medicine for cardiometabolic disease: a framework for clinical translation
    (Elsevier, 2023-11-01) Franks, P. W.; Cefalu, W. T.; Dennis, J.; Florez, J. C.; Mathieu, C.; Morton, R. W.; Ridderstråle, M.; Sillesen, H. H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.
    Cardiometabolic disease is a major threat to global health. Precision medicine has great potential to help to reduce the burden of this common and complex disease cluster, and to enhance contemporary evidence-based medicine. Its key pillars are diagnostics; prediction (of the primary disease); prevention (of the primary disease); prognosis (prediction of complications of the primary disease); treatment (of the primary disease or its complications); and monitoring (of risk exposure, treatment response, and disease progression or remission). To contextualise precision medicine in both research and clinical settings, and to encourage the successful translation of discovery science into clinical practice, in this Series paper we outline a model (the EPPOS model) that builds on contemporary evidence-based approaches; includes precision medicine that improves disease-related predictions by stratifying a cohort into subgroups of similar characteristics, or using participants' characteristics to model treatment outcomes directly; includes personalised medicine with the use of a person's data to objectively gauge the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of therapeutics; and subjectively tailors medical decisions to the individual's preferences, circumstances, and capabilities. Precision medicine requires a well functioning system comprised of multiple stakeholders, including health-care recipients, health-care providers, scientists, health economists, funders, innovators of medicines and technologies, regulators, and policy makers. Powerful computing infrastructures supporting appropriate analysis of large-scale, well curated, and accessible health databases that contain high-quality, multidimensional, time-series data will be required; so too will prospective cohort studies in diverse populations designed to generate novel hypotheses, and clinical trials designed to test them. Here, we carefully consider these topics and describe a framework for the integration of precision medicine in cardiometabolic disease.
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    Recent UK type 2 diabetes treatment guidance represents a near whole population indication for SGLT2-inhibitor therapy
    (BioMed Central, 2023-11-02) Young, K. G.; Hopkins, R.; Shields, B. M.; Thomas, N. J.; McGovern, A. P.; Dennis, J. M.
    Recent type 2 diabetes guidance from the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) proposes offering SGLT2-inhibitor therapy to people with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure, and considering SGLT2-inhibitor therapy for those at high-risk of cardiovascular disease defined as a 10-year cardiovascular risk of > 10% using the QRISK2 algorithm. We used a contemporary population-representative UK cohort of people with type 2 diabetes to assess the implications of this guidance. 93.1% of people currently on anti-hyperglycaemic treatment are now recommended or considered for SGLT2-inhibitor therapy under the new guidance, with the majority (59.6%) eligible on the basis of QRISK2 rather than established ASCVD or heart failure (33.6%). Applying these results to the approximately 2.20 million people in England currently on anti-hyperglycaemic medication suggests 1.75 million people will now be considered for additional SGLT2-inhibitor therapy, taking the total cost of SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in England to over £1 billion per year. Given that older people, those of non-white ethnic groups, and those at lower cardiovascular disease risk were underrepresented in the clinical trials which were used to inform this guidance, careful evaluation of the impact and safety of increased SGLT2-inhibitor prescribing across different populations is urgently required. Evidence of benefit should be weighed against the major cost implications for the UK National Health Service.